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Annals of the new york academy of sciences volume 108, issue 3 , article first published online: 15 dec 2006 abstract references cited by options for accessing this content: if you have access to this content through a society membership, please first log in to your society website. If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian. If your institution is on this list, you should login via openathens. cheap viagra buy generic viagra cheap generic viagra buy cheap viagra buy viagra viagra for sale viagra for sale cheap generic viagra buy viagra online buy generic viagra If it is not, please login via athens login via other institutional login options you can purchase online access to this article for a 24-hour period (price varies by title) if you already have a wiley online library or wiley interscience user account: login above and proceed to purchase the article. New users: please register, then proceed to purchase the article. Registered users please login: access your saved publications, articles and searches manage your email alerts, orders and subscriptions change your contact information, including your password e-mail: password: please register to: save publications, articles and searches get email alerts get all the benefits mentioned below! Register now >. May not contain tumor. Moreover, metastases from bladder and other pelvic cancers frequently cause very little nodal enlargement. Occasionally, the shape of the lymph nodes can be helpful: round nodes are more likely to be metastatic than are ovoid nodes [29]. Standard ct and mri have similar rates of accuracy for pelvic nodal staging: 70–97% and 73–98%, respectively [30, 31]. However, some authors have reported that dynamic contrast enhancement characteristics of lymph nodes using contrast-enhanced mri may improve the accuracy of mri because most metastatic lymph nodes take up the contrast agent more rapidly than do hyperplastic or nonmetastatic lymph nodes [29, 32]. Additionally, the use of lymphographic mr contrast agents with ultrasmall iron oxide particles has been reported to improve the accuracy of lymph node staging in bladder cancer with reported sensitivity and specificity rates of 87% and 92%, respectively [29, 32]. The functional imaging technique 18f-fdg pet detects glucose metabolism. Metastatic lymph nodes harboring tumors show increased fdg avidity on pet scans; however, pet suffers from poor spatial resolution and a high rate of false-negativ.

 


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